Scientific Data is a significant raw material of the 21st century. Surprisingly, extreme-scale aspects of Big-Data are not sufficiently explored in materials science and engineering. This is where the Novel Materials Discovery Laboratory comes in: NOMAD creates, collects, stores, and cleanses computational materials science data, computed by the most important materials-science codes available today. Most importantly, NOMAD develops tools for mining this data in order to find structure, correlations, and novel information that could not be discovered from studying smaller data sets. Together, the large volume of data and innovative tools will enable researchers in basic science and engineering to advance materials science, identify new physical phenomena, and help industry to improve existing and develop novel products and technologies.